Nordic blue forests are coastal vegetated habitats, such as kelp forests, eelgrass meadows and rockweed beds, that are important natural sinks for carbon and thereby climate regulation. They also play an important role in climate adaptation. Simultaneously, blue forests are at high risk from climate change and other human impacts, such as eutrophication and coastal development. This report presents the main findings of the Nordic Blue Carbon Project (2017–2020) on the areal distribution and carbon budget of blue forests (kelp forests, seagrass meadows and rockweed beds) in the Nordic region. We have identified the main ecosystem effects of climate change and other human pressures on Nordic blue forests, tested the effect of moderating some of these pressures, and give scientific advice on management measures aimed at safeguarding these important coastal ecosystems for the future.