This study was performed for Nordsyn sponsored by Nordic Council of Ministers. The aim was to analyse if the energy labels of air-to-air heat pumps give consumers in Nordic countries sufficient information on energy performance, since declared performance was suspected to be higher than in reality. Due to very few field measurements available, this suspicion could not be confirmed nor rejected. It was found that many heat pumps are declared for lower capacities compared to their intended use in the Nordic countries, to obtain a higher SCOP value on the energy label. Market surveillance tests show that it has become rarer that heat pumps defrost during the laboratory tests. Altogether the study shows that the current energy label does not give clear guidance to the consumer. Recommendations for field measurements as well as suggestions for standard and regulation developments are given.