Children and young people from the Inuit and Sami populations in the Nordic countries can be identified as a vulnerable group. Young Sami and Inuit experience a higher degree of violence, abuse, suicidal thoughts and suicide rates compared to their peers in the majority populations in the Nordic countries. Their living conditions are in most cases influenced by a limited access to welfare benefits such as the healthcare system, social services and educational opportunities. Career prospects in the Arctic region are also narrow compared to the more densely populated and central regions in the Nordic countries. In order to understand and act upon the challenges the populations face, an in-depth and systematic review of the existing literature and experiences of children’s and youth’s well-being and their existing living conditions in the Arctic Region is essential.