Mapping of lithium-ion batteries for vehicles

A study of their fate in the Nordic countries


The number of electric vehicles (cars, buses, e-bikes, electric scooters and electric motorcycles) sold in the Nordic countries is currently increasing quickly. That means that more electricity is used for driving, and also that more of some important metals are being used than earlier. This report regards the fate of the lithium-ion batteries used in vehicles in the Nordic countries. Currently the “Battery Directive” (EC, 2006) which is a producer’s responsibility directive, is under revision and this study is a knowledge base intended for use by the Nordic Environmental Protection Agencies for their referral response in the revision process. This report focuses on the aspect of metal resources, but it does not elaborate on a broader range of environmental impacts, as these were outside the scope of this study.