This indicator shows the number of Ph.D. graduates per million inhabitants from certified institutions within ISCED level 8 (Ph.D. graduates: Doctors of Philosophy). The number of Ph.D graduates has increased in resent years. Among the Nordics, Finland accounts for the highest number of PhD graduates per million inhabitants.
All of the Nordic countries has increased the number of granted patents significantly over the recent years and is well above the European average with the exception of Norway and Iceland. The indicator shows the number of granted patents per million inhabitants in the Nordic region. All direct applications to the European Patent Office (EPO) are taken into account.
This indicator shows the percent of the labour force in the Nordic region who are employed as R&D staff in full time equivalents (FTE). The Nordic average is well above the EU-average in this area. Data on R&D staff is compiled according to the guidelines in the Frascati Manual (OECD 2002).
Expenditure on research and development
Sweden leads in this area and the Nordic average is significantly above the EU average. This indicator shows how much is spent on the R&D area in per cent of GDP in the Nordic region.