Þetta innihald er ekki til á því tungumáli sem þú hefur valið, því sýnum við innihaldið á Enska.

Research & Innovation

18.05.20 | Tölfræði
Scientific-based knowledge is vital for sustainable development in all areas of society; contributing to green transition, competitiveness and growth as well as socially sustainable communities. Advanced Nordic research co-operation increases the quality and impact of the research. Moreover, this co-operation gives the research stakeholders and countries added value through cost savings and greater ability to attract research funding within EU programs and initiatives. Therefore it´s important to keep track of how the Nordic countries are performing in this area.

PhD graduates

This indicator shows the number of Ph.D. graduates per million inhabitants from certified institutions within ISCED level 8 (Ph.D. graduates: Doctors of Philosophy). The number of Ph.D graduates  has increased in resent years. Among the Nordics, Finland accounts for the highest number of PhD graduates per million inhabitants.



All of the Nordic countries has increased the number of granted patents significantly over the recent years and is well above the European average with the exception of Norway and Iceland. The indicator shows the number of granted patents per million inhabitants in the Nordic region. All direct applications to the European Patent Office (EPO) are taken into account.


R&D staff

This indicator shows the percent of the labour force in the Nordic region who are employed as R&D staff in full time equivalents (FTE). The Nordic average is well above the EU-average in this area. Data on R&D staff is compiled according to the guidelines in the Frascati Manual (OECD 2002). 


Expenditure on research and development

Sweden leads in this area and the Nordic average is significantly above the EU average. This indicator shows how much is spent on the R&D area in per cent of GDP in  the Nordic region.