Use of Economic Instruments in Nordic Environmental Policy 2018–2021


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This is the nineth quadrennial report on the use of economic instruments in Nordic environmental policy published by the Nordic Working Group for Environment and Economics. The report contains two parts. Part 1 summarizes the most significant developments in the use of economic instruments in the environmental policies in the Nordic countries. It provides an overview of new instruments or major changes to existing instruments from 2018 to 2021 in the Nordic countries. The biggest changes are seen in the transport sector and in the field of energy and air pollution. Part 2 provides an overview of policies and instruments the Nordic countries have used to promote clean technologies. Most common is the use of a mix of environmental taxes and subsidies. Each country has chosen different technological paths depending on national and sector characteristics, as well as national preferences.
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