Their reflections glitter and sparkle in the gently undulating waters of the port. In many of the Nordic cities, big new buildings have sprung up along the old waterfronts. The modern architecture signals progress, economic development, creativity and innovation. These are keywords in the Nordic Region, where population growth in the urban conurbations is on a scale not seen since industrialisation in the late 19th century.
At the same time, out in the countryside, abandoned houses and dilapidated hovels await demolition, local shops are closing, schools merging. Populations are declining drastically in the peripheral regions, where house prices have not soared the way they have in the big cities, and living standards are not quite as high. Official agencies and politicians are taking these economic and social challenges very seriously.
The population of the Region is forecast to grow by nearly three million in the next 40 years. Active regional policies are being implemented to make it attractive to live in the most sparsely populated parts of Norway, Iceland, Finland and Sweden. These rural districts have plenty of room and provide things the cities cannot, things that are increasingly valuable in a busy, densely populated world: tranquility, fresh air and nature. There is so much to see and do, and a wealth of fresh, raw ingredients like mushrooms and berries to enjoy.
More than 27 million people live in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Åland. And yet the Region is sparsely populated, comprising huge expanses of unspoiled wilderness – mainly forests, meadows, mountains and water. The exception is Denmark, which has 130 inhabitants per km2, and is one of the most densely populated countries in Europe. Sweden, Norway and Finland have 16–21.8 people per km2, Iceland 3.2, and Greenland only 0.14 in the ice-free parts of the country, mainly along the south-west coast.
The population of the Region has risen by more than three million (13%) since 1990. Iceland leads the way with a growth rate of 28%, followed by Norway (21%) and Åland (18%). It is the result of births outstripping deaths and the level of immigration exceeding that of emigration.
Old industrial areas have been converted into attractive residential neighbourhoods. Drab waterfronts have been reborn with exciting high-rise buildings, and historic centres have been preserved and renovated. The Nordic cities are attractive hubs, with high levels of economic activity, energy and creativity.
Population growth in and around the capital cities is higher than elsewhere. Stockholm is the biggest of the Nordic cities, with a population of 2.2 million, followed by Copenhagen (1.3 million), Oslo (1.2 million) and Helsinki (1.1 million).
Reykjavik (population 215,000) has enjoyed the most rapid growth – 30% since 1990. Tórshavn, the capital of the Faroe Islands, is also growing rapidly and is now home to 20,000 people.
The most densely populated part of the Nordic Region is the Øresund Region, which brings together East Denmark, including the capital city Copenhagen, and the Swedish province of Skåne, including the major city of Malmö. The Øresund Link, which opened in 2000, has established strong bonds between Skåne and Zealand.
An ageing population
The ratio of old to young people in the Nordic Region is increasing. The latest forecasts suggest that over-65s will make up 50% of the adult population of Finland and Åland in 2030. The concept of “the burden of the elderly” has gained ground, but it must also be emphasised that many senior citizens in the Nordic Region live healthy and active lives and fend for themselves.
Current forecasts indicate that 8.6% of the total Nordic population in 2040 will be 80+. Average life expectancy is increasing in all of the countries, with women in Finland living longest – to an average of 84.
This higher proportion of old people is due to a combination of longer lives and lower birth rates, although the Nordic countries still have higher birth rates than almost every other country in Europe.
Immigration and emigration
Much of the migration in the Region is between the Nordic countries. The free labour market, closely related languages and Nordic rules for studying elsewhere in the Region make it easy to relocate.
The figures for immigration to the Region include citizens returning to their home country, as well as citizens of foreign countries who have been granted residence permits.
As of 1 January 2017, Åland and Norway had the largest percentages of citizens from other countries, both with 10.6% of the population – followed by Iceland (8.9%), Sweden (8.5%) and Denmark (8.4%). At the other end of the scale are Finland (4.4%), the Faroe Islands (2.9%) and Greenland (1.8%).
The number of non-Nordic citizens has increased throughout the Region, partly as a result of refugees fleeing political upheaval and war throughout the Middle East and Asia, particularly in Syria.
In 2013, more than 18,500 Poles and 13,000 citizens of the Baltic states immigrated into the Nordic Region, the majority to Norway (based on 2016 figures).
The largest number of asylum seekers come to Sweden and Norway
The number of asylum seekers is one indication of the fact that people want to live in the Region.
Asylum seekers do not yet have residence permits, and so are not included in the general population statistics.
The number of people granted asylum varied between 13,000 and 36,000 p.a. in the period before the civil war in Syria. In 2015, 162,877 people applied for asylum in Sweden, and 67,258 were granted it in 2016. By comparison, the figure was only 24,498 in 2014.
Between 1990 and 2000, the number of asylum seekers p.a. increased in all of the Nordic countries except Sweden, which had a major influx in 1990–1992. The number of asylum seekers in Denmark fell by 85–90% in the period 2000–2006.
What will the future bring?
The current population of 27 million is expected to grow to approximately 30.9 million by 2050. This prognosis is based on a series of expectations about birth rates, death rates, emigration and immigration in the individual countries.
The most reliable of these expectations are those concerning ageing, as these figures are based on actual births.
The most recent predictions for population growth show rises of about 20% in Norway, Sweden and Iceland by 2040. In Denmark, the figure will be around 9%, and Finland 7% (2017).
More mouths to feed
All over the world, politicians and researchers are concerned about the dependency burden. But what exactly does the concept cover?
In simple terms, a number of people work, pay tax and support a certain number of children, youngsters, the sick and old.
Any major imbalance between the two groups is cause for concern, and raises the question of whether it will be possible to maintain the welfare state in its current form.
The dependency burden – or elderly burden – is expected to increase in all of the Nordic countries, but to be less onerous than in almost all other European countries because of the relatively high birth rates.
According to the latest projections (2017), 27.3% of the population of Åland will be over 65 in 2040. In Finland, the figure will be 26.3%. The figures for the Faroe Islands, Denmark, Norway and Sweden will only be slightly lower, while Greenland's dependency ratio in 2040 will be only 14.8% of the population. Including the number of children and young people (0–19), who will be supported by the working population aged 20–64, the number of citizens in need of support will reach around 50% of the population in 2040.