Fasta Åland is the largest of the islands and home to the capital, Mariehamn. The Sea of Åland to the west of the islands stretches to Swedish Roslagen coast. To the east, Åland borders the Finnish archipelago of Åboland.
The politics of Åland
Åland is part of the Republic of Finland but has its own devolved parliament. In devolved policy areas Åland acts more or less as an independent nation.
Åland is a demilitarised and neutral zone. The parliament, known as the Lagting, is the highest authority.
Åland is a member of the EU and uses the euro. However, its relationship to the EU is regulated by a special protocol: i.e. to maintain the important duty-free sales on ships between Finland and Sweden, Åland is not part of the VAT area.
- National day: June 9 (Self-Government Day, 9 June 1922)
- Form of government: Home rule within the Republic of Finland
- Parliament: Lagtinget (30 members)
- Membership of the EU: Since 1 January 1995 (but not part of the tax union)
- Membership of NATO: No
The population of Åland
Åland is the smallest of the three autonomous territories in the Nordic Region and has a population of 30,000, one-third of whom live in the capital, Mariehamn. The official language is Swedish.
- Population 2020: 29,884
- Population, the capital 2017: Mariehamn 11,565
The population of Åland
The Åland economy
The main sources of income on Åland are shipping and ferry services, tourism and the processing of agricultural and fishery products.
- Per capita GDP: €36 200 (2020).
- Currency: Euro
The geography of Åland
The islands boast cliffs, heathlands and large expanses of pine forest. Roughly 9% of Åland consists of arable land.
- Total area: 1,581 km²
- Lakes and rivers: 27 km²
- Land mass: 1,553 km²
- Agricultural land and horticulture: 140 km²
- Forests: 937 km²
- Largest lake: Eastern and Western Kyrksundet 2.6 km2
- Highest point: Orrdalsklint 129 m
- Borders: 0.5 km (the border with Sweden at Märket lighthouse)
The climate and environment in Åland
Åland has a temperate climate with significant levels of precipitation.
- Precipitation Mariehamn (2006): 546 mm
- Average temperature Mariehamn (2018): 7.1°C (max. 31.2°C, min. -18.7°C)
Average temperature Mariehamn
Languages in Åland
The official language of Åland is Swedish, unlike the rest of Finland which is bilingual. In practice, many islanders speak Finnish to varying degrees, but far from all of them.
- Official language: Swedish
Are you interested in moving to Åland?
If you are interested in moving to Åland, contact Info Norden, the Nordic Council of Ministers’ information service.
Do you want to learn more about Åland and the other Nordic countries?
The biennial report State of the Nordic Region provides a comprehensive and unique insight into the Nordic countries, drawing on statistical data on demographics, the labour market, education and the economy in the Region.
Would you like more statistics?
We have collated relevant Nordic data and statistics in the Nordic Statistics database. It covers multiple subject areas and all of the Nordic countries.