Iceland is two and a half times the size of Denmark, but only a little over 1% of the land is fit for growing crops. Most of the landscape consists of big lava fields and glaciers. More than half of the population of 356,991 live in and around the capital, Reykjavík.
Iceland is a republic with a directly elected president. The president formally nominates the prime minister. The Althing (Alþingi) is the parliament and supreme authority in Iceland.
Although Iceland is not an EU member, it is a signatory to the EEA Agreement, so is part of the European Economic Area. Iceland is a member of NATO.
Fish and fishery products are still the country’s main source of income, followed by aluminium and ferrosilicon exports. In recent years, growth has been recorded in sectors such as biotechnology, software and tourism.
GDP per capita is EUR 41,200 (2020)
Total area: 103,492 km2
Ice caps and glaciers: 10,500 km2
Lakes and rivers: 2,656 km2
Ice-free area: 92,692 km2
Arable land, market gardens and orchards: 1,290 km2
Forests: 1,907 km2
Largest lake: Þingvallavatn 82 km2
Coastline: 6,088 km
Highest point: Hvannadalshnúkur 2,110 m
Average temperature in Reykjavík (2018): 5.1° C (maximum 23.5 °C, minimum -9.0 °C)
Precipitation in Reykjavik (2007): 890 mm
Population in 2020: 364,134
Population of the capital in 2016: 216,878 inhabitants in Reykjavík (local authority) (1)
National day: 17 June (Independence Day, 17 June 1944)
Form of government: Republic
Parliament: Althing (Alþingi) (63 seats)
EU membership: No
EEA membership: Since 1 January 1994
NATO membership: Since 4 April 1949
Head of state: President Guðni Th. Jóhannesson
Head of government: Prime Minister Katrín Jakobsdóttir
Currency: Icelandic krona (ISK)
Official website: www.iceland.is
Official language: Icelandic
1) Reykjavik, Kópavogur, Seltjarnarnes, Garðabær, Hafnarfjörður, Mosfellsbær, Kjósarhreppur and Álftanes