In the north, Finland has land borders with its Nordic neighbours Norway and Sweden, and the three nations’ borders all meet at Treriksröset (The Three-Country Cairn). Finland also has a land border with Russia and sea borders with Estonia and Åland.
Politics in Finland
Finland is a republic. The directly elected President has real power over foreign affairs, EU policy and major military decisions. In all other matters, parliament is the supreme authority.
Finland is a member of the EU and uses the euro as its currency. It is not a member of NATO.
- National day: 6 December (Independence Day 1917)
- Form of government: Republic
- Parliament: Eduskunta/Riksdagen (200 members)
- Membership of the EU: Since 1 January 1995
- Membership of NATO: Since 4 April 2023
- Head of State (March 2012): President Sauli Niinistö
- Head of Government (December 2019): Prime Minister Sanna Marin (Social Democrat)
The population of Finland
Finland has a population of just under 5.5 million, around 1.1 million of whom live in and around the capital, Helsinki.
- Population 2021: 5.548,241
- Population, the capital 2016: 1,138,502 (Capital Region) 1)
The Finnish economy
The forestry, technology and metal industries are Finland’s most important sources of income.
- Per capita GDP: €35,100 (2020)
- Currency: Euro
The geography of Finland
Finland is called “the land of a thousand lakes” as inland lakes and rivers make up 10% of the country. Large areas of forest cover almost two thirds of the land mass and only 6% of the country is arable.
- Total area: 338,430 km²
- Land area: 303,890 km²
- Lakes and rivers: 34,540 km²
- Agricultural land and horticulture: 22,672 km²
- Forests: 227,690 km²
- Largest lake: Saimaa 1,377 km²
- Highest point: Mount Halti 1,324 m
- Mainland coastline: 6,308 km
The climate and environment in Finland
The climate is temperate in the south but sub-Arctic in parts of the north.
- Precipitation in Helsinki (2005): 648 mm
- Average temperature, Helsinki (2021): 6.6°C (max. 30.4°C, min. -19.7°C)
The average temperature in Helsinki
Languages in Finland
- Official languages: Finnish and Swedish (national languages)
Are you interested in moving to Finland?
If you are interested in moving to Finland, contact Info Norden, the Nordic Council of Ministers’ information service.
Do you want to learn more about Finland and the other Nordic countries?
The biennial report State of the Nordic Region provides a comprehensive and unique insight into the Nordic countries, drawing on statistical data on demographics, the labour market, education and the economy in the Region.
Would you like more statistics?
We have collated relevant Nordic data and statistics in the Nordic Statistics database. It covers multiple subject areas and all of the Nordic countries.
1) Helsinki, Espoo, Grankulla and Vanda.