In the north, Finland has land borders with its Nordic neighbours Norway and Sweden, and the three nations’ borders all meet at Treriksröset (The Three-Country Cairn). Finland also has a land border with Russia and sea borders with Estonia and Åland.
Politics in Finland
Finland is a republic. The directly elected President has real power over foreign affairs, EU policy and major military decisions. In all other matters, parliament is the highest authority.
Finland is a member of the EU and uses the euro as its currency. It is not a member of NATO.
National day: 6 December (Independence Day 1917)
Form of government: Republic
Parliament: Riksdagen (200 MPs)
Membership of the EU: Since 1 January 1995
Membership of NATO: No
Head of State (March 2012): President Sauli Niinistö
Head of Government (December 2019): Prime Minister Sanna Marin (Social Democrats)
Finland has a population of just under 5.5 million, around 1.1 million of whom live in the area in and around the capital, Helsinki.
Population 2020: 5.525,292
Population, the capital 2016: 1,138,502 (Capital Region) 1)
The forestry, technology and metal industries are Finland’s most important sources of income.
Per capita GDP: €35,100 (2020)
Finland is called “the land of a thousand lakes” as inland lakes and rivers make up 10% of the country. Large areas of forest cover almost two thirds of the land mass, and only 6% of the country is arable.
Total area: 338,430 km²
Land area: 303,890 km²
Lakes and rivers: 34,540 km²
Agricultural land and horticulture: 22,672 km²
Forests: 227,690 km²
Largest lake: Saimen 1,377 km²
Highest point: Halde fjäll (Halti/Háldičohkku) 1,324 m
Mainland coastline: 6,308 km
Climate and environment
The climate is temperate in the south but northern parts of Finland have a sub-Arctic climate.
Precipitation in Helsinki (2005): 648 mm
Average temperature, Helsinki (2018): 7.3°C (max. 30.4°C, min. -19.7°C)
The average temperature in Helsinki
Languages in Finland
Official languages: Finnish and Swedish (national languages)
Interested in moving to Finland?
If you are interested in moving to Finland, contact Info Norden, the Nordic Council of Ministers’ information service.
Do you want to know more about Finland and the rest of the Nordic countries?
The biennial report State of the Nordic Region provides a comprehensive and unique insight into the Nordic countries, drawing on statistical data on demographics, the labour market, education and the economy in the Region.
Interested in more statistics?
We have collated relevant Nordic data and statistics in the Nordic Statistics database. The database covers multiple subject areas and all of the Nordic countries.
1) Helsinki, Espoo, Grankulla and Vanda.