This report is the second report in a research project examining how to increase labour market participation among vulnerable groups in the Nordic countries. In this report we develop a framework over employment barriers that vulnerable groups face in the nordic countries, based on an extensive targeted literature review. The purpose of the framework is twofold. First, we hope it can be a tool for practitioners to identify and address the broad range of barriers to employment that vulnerable groups potentially face. Second, the framework will be useful in future phases of this project, when we will operationalise and measure the prevalence of the barriers among vulnerable groups in the Nordic countries and analyse relevant and promising policies to help individuals with certain set of barriers.