BAT for combustion and incineration residues in a Circular Economy


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Combustion of biomass and incineration of solid waste and sewage sludge are important parts of the energy production and waste management infrastructure in most of the Nordic countries, but they also produce substantial quantities of residual waste in terms of bottom ash, fly ash and flue gas cleaning residues which contain potentially harmful substances in various amounts. Preferably, the ashes and residues should be treated and utilised as part of the Circular Economy. The project provides an overview of the utilisation options, including environmental and treatment requirements, and of the associated technical and regulatory frameworks and practical conditions of utilisation. Compliance of combinations of treatments and applications of ashes and residues with Best Available Techniques (BAT) has been assessed, and seven Nordic BAT candidates have been proposed and described in detail.
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