Policy measures to compensate for increasing costs of energy: Impacts on equity, climate, and the environment


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The Nordic region's climate change goals are challenged by significant energy price hikes from 2021 to 2023. Nordic governments implemented various price compensation measures, but their impact on social-, climate-, and environmental goals remains uncertain. The impact evaluation presented in this report highlights that the Nordic measures were characterised by diverse designs, rapid yet problematic implementation, and limited redistribution to low-income households. Several measures discouraged effective resource allocation and emission reduction. To reduce the risk of conflict between compensation measures and climate change policy it is important that measures are understood as temporary. Measures that utilise flat rate or regressive patterns for transfer of funds, and that decouple funds from current consumption, should have been more effective that most of the measures utilised.
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